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Introduction
MOTOROLA
M68060 USER’S MANUAL
1-11
The processor halts when it receives an access error or generates an address error while in
the exception processing state. For example, if during exception processing of one access
error another access error occurs, the MC68060 is unable to complete the transition to nor-
mal processing and cannot save the internal state of the machine. The processor assumes
that the system is not operational and halts. Only an external reset can restart a halted pro-
cessor. Note that when the processor executes a STOP or LPSTOP instruction, it is in a spe-
cial type of normal processing state, one without bus cycles. The processor stops, but it
does not halt and can be restored by an interrupt or reset.
1.6 PROGRAMMING MODEL
The MC68060 programming model is separated into two privilege modes: supervisor and
user. The integer unit identifies a logical address by accessing either the supervisor or user
address space, maintaining the differentiation between supervisor and user modes. The
MMUs use the indicated privilege mode to control and translate memory accesses, protect-
ing supervisor code, data, and resources from user program accesses. Refer to
1.1.2.1
Address Translation Differences
for details concerning the MC68EC060 address transla-
tion.
Programs access registers based on the indicated mode. User programs can only access
registers specific to the user mode; whereas, system software executing in the supervisor
mode can access all registers, using the control registers to perform supervisory functions.
User programs are thus restricted from accessing privileged information, and the operating
system performs management and service tasks for the user programs by coordinating their
activities. This difference allows the supervisor mode to protect system resources from
uncontrolled accesses.
Most instructions execute in either mode, but some instructions that have important system
effects are privileged and can only execute in the supervisor mode. For instance, user pro-
grams cannot execute the STOP or RESET instructions. To prevent a user program from
entering the supervisor mode, except in a controlled manner, instructions that can alter the
S-bit in the status register (SR) are privileged. The TRAP instructions provide controlled
access to operating system services for user programs.
If the S-bit in the SR is set, the processor executes instructions in the supervisor mode.
Because the processor performs all exception processing in the supervisor mode, all bus
cycles generated during exception processing are supervisor references, and all stack
accesses use the active supervisor stack pointer. If the S-bit of the SR is clear, the processor
executes instructions in the user mode. The bus cycles for an instruction executed in the
user mode are user references. The values on the transfer modifier pins indicate either
supervisor or user accesses.
The processor utilizes the user mode and the user programming model when it is in normal
processing. During exception processing, the processor changes from user to supervisor
mode. Exception processing saves the current value of the SR on the active supervisor
stack and then sets the S-bit, forcing the processor into the supervisor mode. To return to
the user mode, a system routine must execute one of the following instructions: MOVE to
SR, ANDI to SR, EORI to SR, ORI to SR, or RTE, which execute in the supervisor mode,
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