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Asbestos and Non-Asbestos Fibers
i
ArvinMeritor Maintenance Manual MM-0361 (Revised 04-10)
Figure 0.1
ASBESTOS FIBERS WARNING
The following procedures for servicing brakes are recommended to reduce exposure to
asbestos ber dust, a cancer and lung disease hazard. Material Safety Data Sheets are
available from ArvinMeritor.
Hazard Summary
Because some brake linings contain asbestos, workers who service brakes must understand the
potential hazards of asbestos and precautions for reducing risks. Exposure to airborne asbestos
dust can cause serious and possibly fatal diseases, including asbestosis (a chronic lung disease)
and cancer, principally lung cancer and mesothelioma (a cancer of the lining of the chest or
abdominal cavities). Some studies show that the risk of lung cancer among persons who smoke
and who are exposed to asbestos is much greater than the risk for non-smokers. Symptoms of
these diseases may not become apparent for 15, 20 or more years after the rst exposure to
asbestos.
A
ccordingly, workers must use caution to avoid creating and breathing dust when servicing
brakes. Speci c recommended work practices for reducing exposure to asbestos dust follow.
Consult your employer for more details.
Recommended Work Practices
1. Separate Work Areas. Whenever feasible, service brakes in a separate area away from other
operations to reduce risks to unprotected persons. OSHA has set a maximum allowable level of
exposure for asbestos of 0.1 f/cc as an 8-hour time-weighted average and 1.0 f/cc averaged over
a 30-minute period. Scientists disagree, however, to what extent adherence to the maximum
allowable exposure levels will eliminate the risk of disease that can result from inhaling asbestos
dust. OSHA requires that the following sign be posted at the entrance to areas where exposures
exceed either of the maximum allowable levels:
DANGER: ASBESTOS
CANCER AND LUNG DISEASE HAZARD
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY
RESPIRATORS AND PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
ARE REQUIRED IN THIS AREA.
2. Respiratory Protection. Wear a respirator equipped with a high-ef ciency (HEP A) lter
approved by NIOSH or MSHA for use with asbestos at all times when servicing brakes, beginning
with the removal of the wheels.
3. Procedures for Servicing Brakes.
a. Enclose the brake assembly within a negative pressure enclosure. The enclosure should be
equipped with a HEPA vacuum and worker arm sleeves. With the enclosure in place, use the
HEPA vacuum to loosen and vacuum residue from the brake parts.
b. As an alternative procedure, use a catch basin with water and a biodegradable, non-
phosphate, water-based detergent to wash the brake drum or rotor and other brake parts.
The solution should be applied with low pressure to prevent dust from becoming airborne.
Allow the solution to ow between the brake drum and the brake support or the brake rotor
and caliper. The wheel hub and brake assembly components should be thoroughly wetted to
suppress dust before the brake shoes or brake pads are removed. Wipe the brake parts
clean with a cloth.
c. If an enclosed vacuum system or brake washing equipment is not available, employers may
adopt their own written procedures for servicing brakes, provided that the exposure levels
associated with the employer’s procedures do not exceed the levels associated with the
enclosed vacuum system or brake washing equipment. Consult OSHA regulations for more
details.
d.Wear a respirator equipped with a HEPA lter approved by NIOSH or MSHA for use with
asbestos when grinding or machining brake linings. In addition, do such work in an area with
a local exhaust ventilation system equipped with a HEPA lter.
e.NEVER use compressed air by itself, dry brushing, or a vacuum not equipped with a HEPA
lter when cleaning brake parts or assemblies. NEVER use carcinogenic solvents,
ammable solvents, or solvents that can damage brake components as wetting agents.
4. Cleaning Work Areas. Clean work areas with a vacuum equipped with a HEPA lter or by wet
wiping. NEVER use compressed air or dry sweeping to clean work areas. When you empty
vacuum cleaners and handle used rags, wear a respirator equipped with a HEPA lter approved
by NIOSH or MSHA for use with asbestos. When you replace a HEPA lter, wet the lter with a ne
mist of water and dispose of the used lter with care.
5. Worker Clean-Up. After servicing brakes, wash your hands before you eat, drink or smoke.
Shower after work. Do not wear work clothes home. Use a vacuum equipped with a HEPA lter to
vacuum work clothes after they are worn. Launder them separately. Do not shake or use
compressed air to remove dust from work clothes.
6.Waste Disposal. Dispose of discarded linings, used rags, cloths and HEPA lters with care,
such as in sealed plastic bags. Consult applicable EPA, state and local regulations on waste
disposal.
Regulatory Guidance
References to OSHA, NIOSH, MSHA, and EPA, which are regulatory agencies in the United States,
are made to provide further guidance to employers and workers employed within the United
States. Employers and workers employed outside of the United States should consult the
regulations that apply to them for further guidance.
NON-ASBESTOS FIBERS WARNING
The following procedures for servicing brakes are recommended to reduce exposure to
non-asbestos ber dust, a cancer and lung disease hazard. Material Safety Data
Sheets are available from ArvinMeritor.
Hazard Summary
Most recently manufactured brake linings do not contain asbestos bers. These brake linings may
contain one or more of a variety of ingredients, including glass bers, mineral wool, aramid bers,
ceramic bers and silica that can present health risks if inhaled. Scientists disagree on the extent
of the risks from exposure to these substances. Nonetheless, exposure to silica dust can cause
silicosis, a non-cancerous lung disease. Silicosis gradually reduces lung capacity and ef ciency
and can result in serious breathing dif culty . Some scientists believe other types of non-asbestos
bers, when inhaled, can cause similar diseases of the lung. In addition, silica dust and ceramic
ber dust are known to the State of California to cause lung cancer. U.S. and international
agencies have also determined that dust from mineral wool, ceramic bers and silica are potential
causes of cancer.
Accordingly, workers must use caution to avoid creating and breathing dust when servicing
brakes. Speci c recommended work practices for reducing exposure to
non-asbestos dust follow. Consult your employer for more details.
Recommended Work Practices
1. Separate Work Areas. Whenever feasible, service brakes in a separate area away from other
operations to reduce risks to unprotected persons.
2. Respiratory Protection. OSHA has set a maximum allowable level of exposure for silica of 0.1
mg/m3 as an 8-hour time-weighted average. Some manufacturers of non-asbestos brake linings
recommend that exposures to other ingredients found in non-asbestos brake linings be kept
below 1.0 f/cc as an 8-hour time-weighted average. Scientists disagree, however, to what extent
adherence to these maximum allowable exposure levels will eliminate the risk of disease that can
result from inhaling non-asbestos dust.
Therefore, wear respiratory protection at all times during brake servicing, beginning with the
removal of the wheels. Wear a respirator equipped with a high-ef ciency (HEP A) lter
approved by NIOSH or MSHA, if the exposure levels may exceed OSHA or manufacturers
recommended maximum levels. Even when exposures are expected to be within the maximum
allowable levels, wearing such a respirator at all times during brake servicing will help minimize
exposure.
3. Procedures for Servicing Brakes.
a. Enclose the brake assembly within a negative pressure enclosure. The enclosure should be
equipped with a HEPA vacuum and worker arm sleeves. With the enclosure in place, use the
HEPA vacuum to loosen and vacuum residue from the brake parts.
b. As an alternative procedure, use a catch basin with water and a biodegradable, non-
phosphate, water-based detergent to wash the brake drum or rotor and other brake parts.
The solution should be applied with low pressure to prevent dust from becoming airborne.
Allow the solution to ow between the brake drum and the brake support or the brake rotor
and caliper. The wheel hub and brake assembly components should be thoroughly wetted to
suppress dust before the brake shoes or brake pads are removed. Wipe the brake parts
clean with a cloth.
c. If an enclosed vacuum system or brake washing equipment is not available, carefully clean
the brake parts in the open air. Wet the parts with a solution applied with a pump-spray
bottle that creates a ne mist. Use a solution containing water, and, if available, a
biodegradable, non-phosphate, water-based detergent. The wheel hub and brake assembly
components should be thoroughly wetted to suppress dust before the brake shoes or brake
pads are removed. Wipe the brake parts clean with a cloth.
d.Wear a respirator equipped with a HEPA lter approved by NIOSH or MSHA when grinding or
machining brake linings. In addition, do such work in an area with a local exhaust ventilation
system equipped with a HEPA lter.
e.NEVER use compressed air by itself, dry brushing, or a vacuum not equipped with a HEPA
lter when cleaning brake parts or assemblies. NEVER use carcinogenic solvents,
ammable solvents, or solvents that can damage brake components as wetting agents.
4. Cleaning Work Areas. Clean work areas with a vacuum equipped with a HEPA lter or by wet
wiping. NEVER use compressed air or dry sweeping to clean work areas. When you empty
vacuum cleaners and handle used rags, wear a respirator equipped with a HEPA lter approved
by NIOSH or MSHA, to minimize exposure. When you replace a HEPA lter, wet the lter with a
ne mist of water and dispose of the used lter with care.
5. Worker Clean-Up. After servicing brakes, wash your hands before you eat, drink or smoke.
Shower after work. Do not wear work clothes home. Use a vacuum equipped with a HEPA lter to
vacuum work clothes after they are worn. Launder them separately. Do not shake or use
compressed air to remove dust from work clothes.
6.W
aste Disposal. Dispose of discarded linings, used rags, cloths and HEPA lters with care,
such as in sealed plastic bags. Consult applicable EPA, state and local regulations on waste
disposal.
Regulatory Guidance
References to OSHA, NIOSH, MSHA, and EPA, which are regulatory agencies in the United States,
are made to provide further guidance to employers and workers employed within the United
States. Employers and workers employed outside of the United States should consult the
regulations that apply to them for further guidance.
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