MMA (Manual Metal Arc) Welding General Description
One of the most common types of arc welding is manual metal arc welding (MMA) or stick welding. An electric cur-
gaseous vapours that serve as a shielding gas and providing a layer of slag, both of which protect the weld area from
covering over the weld metal must be chipped away after welding.
Core wire
Flux coating
Arc with core wire melt
Flux residue forms slag cover
Weld metal
Power Source
at the end of the electrode.
and becomes the deposited weld metal.
electrode coating.
protective gas
Core wire
Flux coating
Base metal
Protective gas
Weld pool
a series of letters and numbers. The letters and numbers identify the metal
alloy and the intended use of the electrode.
The Metal Wire Core works as conductor of the current that maintains the arc.
The core wire melts and is deposited into the welding pool.
The covering on a shielded metal arc welding electrode is called Flux.
These include:
producing a protective gas around the weld area
creating a protective slag coating over the weld as it cools
establishing arc characteristics
adding alloying elements.
the molten pool. These additional functions are provided mainly by the cover-
ing on the electrode.
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